Free Book Summary – Unfair Advantage: The Power of Financial Education – Written by Robert Kiyosaki

Robert Kiyosaki has one glaring message. The U.S. needs financial education. Right now our education system is broken and nothing is being taught that prepares people for financial freedom. All of Robert’s books are good and teach basics about financial education and the need for continuous learning. Rich Dad / Poor Dad is another famous book by this author. We will profile that book in a separate summary

The Cashflow Quadrant is a very important concept that people need to cement in their memory if they want to get a handle on financial freedom. The quadrant consists of the following:

1.) E – Stands for employee

2.) S – Stands for small business or self-employed

3.) B – Stands for big business (500 employees or more)

4.) I – Stands for investor

Traditional education prepares us for the E and S quadrant. The mantra has been go to school and then college to hopefully get a good job and save in a 401K for retirement. As many of you know this is not a good model in this day and age. On a side note, I was very fortunate to grow up with an excellent financial teacher. My father taught the principles that Mr. Kiyosaki teaches in his books Rich Dad / Poor Dad, The Cashflow Quadrant and this book Unfair Advantage. I can also tell you that most people are financially uneducated. Authors like Mr. Kiyosaki as well as Dave Ramsey are really needed and our doing what should be taught in our school system at a national level.

Why is this important to me?

This can be answered by asking a few more questions. Do you know the difference between good debt and bad debt? Can you define an asset and liability in simple terms?

Do you know there are three types of taxes for income?

If you are unclear on any of these then you need to read this book. In short form, I will answer all of these questions. Good debt is anything that spits of positive cash flow and increases in value. Thus if you have a debt on a rental house that yields positive monthly cash flow then that is good debt. If you have credit card debt that you don’t pay off each month then that is bad debt. In a nutshell, good debt makes you money and bad debt costs you money.

Assets and liabilities! Anything that generates positive cash flow is an asset while anything that costs you money is a liability. Example: A business that generates monthly profit is an asset. Your home is a liability. I know many of you will disagree with this but your home costs you money each month. This is not a bad thing but because you need a place to live but it is a liability.

The three types of income include: Ordinary, Portfolio and Passive. We will get into more detail on how these play a role in your financial freedom later in this summary. This book is important to you if you want to be financially free and escape the rat race of running out of money before the end of each month.

There are several examples and details outlined in Unfair Advantage but for the sake of time we will cover each in summary.

1.Knowledge – Knowledge put to use equates to power. There are several ways to make money be it in a business, real-estate, stock market, content creation, licensing deals, internet marketing or several other endeavors. The point here is that nothing happens without educating yourself. Warren Buffet the second riches man in the world is known for his constant reading and learning abilities. The premise of Unfair Advantage is with very high financial education, money flows in rather than out. You can pay zero in taxes and earn millions with very low risk by using other people’s money in good or bad economics. This creates an extreme unfair advantage.

2.Taxes – Taxes are government incentives to get people to do what they want them to do. Thus because businesses create jobs and wealth, they have tax strategies as incentives to keep the economy going. There is one huge premise that people need to understand. I will lay out the difference. When you are an employee, you work, pay your taxes and then get your money to pay your expenses. When you are a business, you work, pay all your expenses and then pay taxes on what is left. This is totally legal and can boost rates of return legally. Remember one thing – Tax avoidance is prudent while tax evasion means jail time.

3.Debt – Good debt creates true wealth by allowing you to use OPM (Other People’s Money). This is very powerful and requires discipline. This is one area I

wish this book talked about in more detail. Please note that debt used wisely can create leverage and unlimited wealth. To much debt used wrong can create financial ruin. Also, know that 85+% of the U.S. population has too much BAD debt. This is not what we are talking about. This needs to be taken care of as well to truly achieve financial freedom. The use of debt is an advanced strategy and needs to be used wisely which requires financial education.

4. Risk – The biggest risk in investing comes from the financially uneducated giving their money to financial planners and hoping things work out. This by far has caused large losses for people. Inflation is running rampant right now even though the government says it is not. This is a bigger risk for savers than taxes. Saving money as an investment is a bad idea because over time the value is eaten away through inflation. 401K’s and mutual funds along with diversification are all pitched as NOT risky. This is furthest from the truth. 1. Mutual funds are subject to double taxes as well as fees which eat away at your returns. Also, you are not in control of your money. Note: This does not mean that ALL funds are bad. This is where financial education comes in. Several financial planners will tell their customers to diversify. According to Warren Buffet – “Diversification is a protection against ignorance.”

5. Compensation – The rich don’t work for money. Think about hard work for a moment. If you work overtime then you are trading hours for dollars. The problem becomes that your marginal tax rate increases as you make more ordinary income. Your overtime is taxed higher as you work more. I am not against hard work. Just make sure you couple it with SMART and RIGHT WORK as well. The rich work to buy assets that create cash flow. Your goal should be to have your money work harder than you do and make you more money as soon as possible.

What asset will pay for your liability? This concept was first covered in Rich Dad / Poor Dad. This simple question changes the whole frame of mind and if people followed it then they would be in much better shape financially. This means that if you want a new boat then what asset will pay for the boat? Once you grasp this simple idea then your world will change.

I hope you have found this short video summary useful. The key to any new idea is to work it into your daily routine until it becomes habit. Habits form in as little as 21 days. I highly recommend ingraining the knowledge of compounding in your head. Answer the following correctly and you understand the power of compounding. Would you rather have $1,000,000 cash today or a penny doubled daily for 31 days? You can email me at [email protected] with your answer.

History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.

Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.

Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age

Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.

The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.

Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations

According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture which were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.

The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some part of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued latter on provides the evidence of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period

Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.

The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.

Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.

During the time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.

Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid of 1950’s and was first started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a part of internship plan.

In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.

In 1961, Micro teaching technique was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.

Electronics is the main technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all the important offices and educational places and even in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.

Today’s classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual classroom or may have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the Internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to cope up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as well teachers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international level by using the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened infinite number of doors of opportunities for today’s learner to make their life happier than ever before.

2020 Teacher Education Research

Key questions facing researchers and policymakers are whether teacher education programs are effective in changing teachers’ knowledge and practices and whether such changes, if they occur, increase student learning. Answers to these questions will help determine the characteristics of effective programs for reading teachers.

Because there are multiple layers of causal relationships, encompassing teacher educators to students and including materials and environment, researchers typically focus on a few processes of teaching and learning at a time, usually using a specific method to answer the research question. Research on instructional variables, for example, generally examines the interactions between teachers and students in particular contexts of learning.

Experimental vs. Non-experimental Studies

The number of non-experimental studies far exceeded those of experimental and quasi-experimental studies. There were also far more studies of pre-service teachers than of in-service teachers. Experimental studies provide causal evidence of teacher improvement and sometimes of concurrent student achievement, and non-experimental studies use a variety of approaches and methodologies, providing multiple perspectives and rich contextual descriptions of teacher learning. Correlational data suggest that certain aspects of teacher quality characteristics such as certification status and degree in the field to be taught are positively correlated with student outcomes. However, this does not tell us if these characteristics ultimately lead to better student achievement.

Findings of Experimental Research

Some pre-service experimental studies revealed improvements in the knowledge of prospective teachers, but it is unknown whether their new learning impacts classroom practice and student learning. A longitudinal study would have to follow pre-service teachers into their first year of teaching and beyond. Given the differences between sites where teachers from the same programs teach, the power of such a study would be relatively slight, so few of these studies have been done.

The problems are not as severe for studying in-service education because these sites are identifiable and accessible. However, only some in-service experimental studies reported both teacher and student outcomes. The majority of studies that measured either teacher or student outcomes showed significant or modest improvements in either teacher knowledge or student achievement. Those that measured both provide clear evidence that in-service teachers do learn from professional development programs focusing on specific types of reading instruction and that students of those teachers benefited from improved teaching.

Findings of Non-experimental Research

Non-experimental designs predominate in pre-service studies because of researchers’ interest in relating teachers’ learning processes, both individually and collectively, to prescribed coursework, field experience, or combinations of these. In general, these non-experimental studies affirm the importance of providing field-based experiences in conjunction with coursework in order to help teachers connect theory and practice. The majority also report favorably on pre-service teacher change, but it is uncertain if this change leads to application, though some research suggests that the use of pre-service training becomes increasingly evident in the first two years of teaching. Still uncertain is the effect on student learning. Few of these studies measure or report student outcomes.

In concert with trends in pre-professional preparation of teachers, substantial numbers of non-experimental studies have focused on the variously conceived practice of reflection to examine the process of change in prospective teachers’ beliefs and attitudes in relation to a host of instructional issues. Similarly, the importance of technology has stimulated numerous non-experimental studies of the impact of new technologies on literacy teacher education largely ignored by experimental research-multimedia, hypermedia, and computer-mediated communication. Non-experimental studies have also been instrumental in foregrounding the under-researched issue of teaching reading to culturally diverse learners.

Non-experimental studies of in-service professional development, as with experimental studies, focused on more specific instructional methods and issues compared with pre-service studies. Conceptual tools supported with practical strategies prove to be the most influential, and conferencing with mentors and supervisors is also important.

Future Directions

Experimental research provides evidence of teacher change and its effect on student achievement. To guide change more effectively, we must also understand more deeply teachers’ attitudes, beliefs, and conceptualizations of literacy and the changes they undergo while studying practices and outcomes; knowing about the beliefs and attitudes of teachers is important because it indexes a source of teacher behaviors. In one study, for example, correlational analyses indicated that teachers’ philosophical acceptance predicted their use of instructional methods. Improving and non-improving teachers were different in their self-efficacy and willingness to experiment. Because non-experimental studies ask questions different from those asked by experimental studies-focusing on the processes of change and reflection-both kinds of studies are needed. The findings of the non-experimental studies of teacher change do not contradict those of the experimental research, but they need to be designed and reported better to facilitate parallel or follow-up studies. Furthermore, more longitudinal studies that track teachers through their initial years of teaching and studies investigating diversity need to be rigorously pursued.

Conclusion

One of the key assumptions held about teacher education and professional development is that, if it is effective, it should produce “better” instruction (changes in teacher behaviors) and “better” reading by students (higher achievement). However, this assumption does not drive much of the research. Only some experimental studies compared groups as well as outcome measures, but both are needed for establishing links between interventions and performance. Improvements in research conceptualization and design would allow such analyses to be conducted-analyses that are key for policy work, for example, in establishing the relative costs of raising reading achievement through different professional development programs.

Improvements in methodology and reporting could also lead to a more integrated and holistic understanding of teaching reading. Some of the imbalance between the numbers of experimental and non-experimental studies and between pre-service and in-service studies can be accounted for by costs, by the questions being asked, or, regrettably, by assuming that researchers chose a methodology and then found a problem to study. This latter tactic may become less attractive because of the current national policy, which has adopted as its exemplary standard the experimental research design. It must be acknowledged that non-experimental methodologies may be preferable for certain problems. Integration of knowledge would be facilitated, at least, by authors making their assumptions explicit when reporting studies and by journal editors requiring explicit statements of the relationship between questions, methodology, and data. Finally, we observe that researchers rarely cite relevant research from paradigms other than their own. But much can be gained by having authors broaden their view to include research from different methodologies. Blending data from research conducted using different methodologies has the potential to enrich the knowledge base.

Special Education Lesson Plans

Special education lesson plans are specially designed teaching methods or educational techniques for students of all age groups, with mild to profound disabilities. The lesson plans would vary depending upon the child’s nature, age, and the extremeness and type of disability. These lesson plans are mainly meant to promote student engagements, to prepare students to function independently and to master skills, to build and support social competence, and to help children and their families lead a problem free life. Special education lesson plans include math, science, music, language and art lessons, computers and the Internet, social studies, physical education and health, and other multi-disciplinary lessons.

Special educators should design presentations to cater to different levels of individual disability. Music, dance, and other art forms are great aids to enhance learning in students with disabilities. Reading, writing, and public speaking can be encouraged by special educators. Well thought out lesson plans will enhance the child’s reasoning ability and reading skills, feelings and response, create a sense of personal fulfillment, encourage language development, promote communication, help to achieve motor control and physical wellness, and cultivate positive attitudes towards the school.

The response of disabled students towards the curriculum depends on the nature of the disability, i.e., physical, emotional or cognitive. A good teacher can encourage each student to participate in the learning experience not only with the assistance of well-adapted materials, but also with proper instructional methods which would be practicable in a disabled individual.

One can find sample lesson plans for special education students in books, articles, and on the Internet; however, these lesson plans are to be modified to suit individuals. A special education teacher can design individual activity sheets for each child in consultation with physical therapists, counselors, doctors, occupational therapists, psychiatrists, and social workers.

How to ‘Pin Down’ Busy Higher Education Students

Student participation is inextricably linked to most educational research and those related to various aspects of teaching and learning. This may involve a single student or many, depending on research focus and intent.

Advantages to using students in research may include the fact that they are easily accessed especially if you are the teacher and are using your students as research participants. There are a number of students in an educational institution, therefore, the opportunity to engage in relatively large-scale research projects. Researching with students in one own class or educational institution facilitate easy follow-up sessions. Students also bring varied perspectives and are from varied backgrounds which could potentially lead to rich data.

Despite these advantages, one key challenge is ‘pinning them down’. By this I mean, not just getting their consent and promise to participate as interviewees or respondents, but their actual involvement. During the data collection phrase utilizing students has participants there are 4 strategies I employ in the pinning down process.

Pinning down strategy 1: Link data collection to scheduled lessons.

A key feature of this strategy involves incorporating interviews or questionnaire distribution and completion during lessons that I teach. I also solicit the help of colleagues to do the same at a convenient time during their teaching/lectures. In using this strategy I plan interviews before or after students’ scheduled lectures. This is especially useful when employing a focus group data collection method. I have found that students getting ready for, or leaving a lesson are in ‘learning mode’ and seem mentally ready to answer research-related questions. It is also important to keep these sessions within the advertised length.

Pinning down strategy 2: Link data collection with students’ availability.

Find out from potential student participants, what time is convenient and schedule the interview as appropriate. This strategy is most important if they are not in your class and also decreases the drop-out or ‘no show’ rate. This, however, must be accompanied by timely reminders. After setting and agreeing the date and time send a reminder a week or few days before the actual event. Use emails, texts, calls, social media (as appropriate).

Pinning down strategy 3: Use an alternate format.

Given the pervasive nature of the internet and online environments and students use of these, the use of an alternate format e.g. survey monkey, or ones built-in the University’s Learning Management System or Virtual Learning Environment is a sure way of getting their actual engagement in the research, not just a promise to do so.

Pinning down strategy 4: Reward participation.

Some students participants like to know ‘what’s in this for them’ so strategy number 4 is to offer an incentive, for example, a gift certificate (if appropriate). However in some of my studies using student participant they were willing to participate as long as I gave clear information about the time commitment and some freely gave of their time because they were contributing to a bit of research that they value.